Neanderthal Man and Forensic Pathology

This is the genealogy of Shem: Shem was 100 years old, and begot Arphaxad 2 years after the flood. After he begot Arphaxad, Shem lived 500 years, and begot sons and daughters. Arphaxad lived 35 years, and begot Salah. After he begot Salah, Arphaxad lived 403 years, and begot sons and daughters. Salah lived 30 years, and begot Eber. After he begot Eber, Salah lived 403 years, and begot sons and daughters. Eber lived 34 years, and begot Peleg. After he begot Peleg, Eber lived 430 years, and begot sons and daughters. Peleg lived 30 years, and begot Reu. After he begot Reu, Peleg lived 209 years, and begot sons and daughters. Reu lived 32 years, and begot Serug. After he begot Serug, Reu lived 207 years, and begot sons and daughters. Serug lived 30 years, and begot Nahor. After he begot Nahor, Serug lived 200 years, and begot sons and daughters. Nahor lived 29 years, and begot Terah. After he begot Terah, Nahor lived 119 years, and begot sons and daughters. Now Terah lived 70 years, and begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran.”                                 – Genesis 11:10-26


Decreasing Ages: Shem  Arphaxad  Salah Eber Peleg Reu Serug Nahor Terah
600 438 433 464 239 239 230 148 205


1. The Bible teaches that ancient man prior to the Flood in Noah’s day, lived to hundreds of years of age

2. After the Flood, we begin to see a steep drop-off in the ages of the Patriarchs within a few generations

3. Still the Scripture does represent ancient man as having lived to be far older than we do today

4. Is there any evidence for this?  And if so, what would someone look like who lived to be say 200 or more years of age?

5. The study of Neanderthal Man may shed a great deal of light on this…












Image Source (Book)

Enter Jack Cuozzo – an orthodontist by trade and specialist in forensic pathology / forensic anthropology

  • Cuozzo was trained in forensics and in the use of cephalometric imaging by Wilton M. Krogman 1

Krogman is a key figure in the history of “forensic anthropology”

  • He was the pathologist who worked on behalf of the US Army to identify the remains of Adolf Hitler 2









Image Source

Jack Cuozzo took the first cephalometric radiographs in history of Neanderthal fossils 3

A cephalometric radiograph or x-ray involves taking an image of the head, including the mandible, through exposure to radiation 4

  • “A cephalometric x-ray is taken to view the position of the upper and lower jaws and teeth in profile. Cephalometric radiographs are also used to monitor growth and development, to determine when growth is complete, and to evaluate the specific effects of orthodontic treatment.” 5
  • Because cephalometric radiographs or x-rays are great for monitoring growth and development, forensic pathologists have found their use to be invaluable for determining the age of a skull at the time of death
  • Much of this has to do with its ability to assist in what is termed the “pulp/tooth ratio” or PTR 6


Image Source

Some anatomical background information is warranted here…

1. The human skull never stops growing (i.e., the bones of your skull never stop growing) – the same hat you wore twenty years ago would not fit anymore

  • The skull lengthens as the brow becomes more pronounced
  • Nasal and eye openings enlarge as the face elongates
  • The face becomes more forward looking as the chin flattens out
  • The skull actually thickens (gives new meaning to the term ‘thick-headed’) 7

2. Additionally, teeth have specific features that enable pathologists to determine how old a given subject was at the time of death 8

  • For example, cementum is a calcified substance found at the root of the tooth
    • This connects the root to the periodontal ligament 9
    • Cementum is slowly excreted or formed throughout life by cells within the root and enables continual reattachment of the periodontal ligament 10
    • Because cementum is continuously formed over the course of your life, it becomes a great source for determining how old someone was at the point of death

3. “Evaluation of annual incremental lines of dental cementum is one of potentially valuable methods for biological age estimation in forensic anthropology” 11

4. Tooth enamel and dentin are other features that can be evaluated to determine the age of a subject at the time of death

  • Tests such as “aspartic acid racemization” and “radiocarbon analysis” can be employed to help with this 12

5. A good analogy here would be that just the way you can count rings within a tree to determine its age, you can do the same by examining teeth









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Due to Dr. Cuozzo’s expertise in forensic anthropology (particularly his ability to examine skull fragments without damaging them), doors opened for him with paleontologists representing museums and major research centers

  • This included conducting laboratory experiments in and for some of the most distinguished Natural History Museums in the world
    • Musee de l’Homme in Paris
    • British Museum in England under Christopher Stringer
    • University of Liege in Belgium
    • Rockefeller Museum in Jerusalem
    • Museum of Prehistory in East Berlin
    • Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.
    • Field Museum in Chicago
    • Peabody Museum at Harvard University
    • Southern Methodist University paleontology collection 13
  • Invitations came in for him to examine various Neanderthal remains 14
  • Darwinian thought proposes that Neanderthal lived over a period of a couple hundred thousand years and is an extinct relative of humans 15
  • Neanderthal is key to the study of “human ancestry” within the field of paleontology
    • Skeletal remains involving between 400 and 500 individuals (or some portion of skeletal material) have been found to date, making it the most numerous find of “ancient man” 16
    • Neanderthal is named as such as the first skull was found in the Düssel River Valley in 1856 near a cave named Neanderhöhle – this was named after Joachim Neander, the great hymn writer, who wrote many songs near here
    • Of the over 400 remains found, only one was found completely fossilized
    • Note: that if Neanderthal were 100,000+ years old – they would almost all be completely fossilized (i.e., the skeletal remains should be comprised entirely of mineral and stone as Carbon was depleted and replaced over time)
    • Some 12 complete skeletons have been found to date 17
  • The results of Cuozzo’s work, add tremendous weight to the historicity of passages like Genesis 5 and Genesis 11
    • He found that several of these skulls belonged to individuals who lived much longer than humans do today…
    • See the sections on Le Moustier, La Ferrassie, and La Chapelle-aux-Saints for more information



  2. Death’s Acre by Bill Bass and Jon Jefferson (2003); see page 4, page 17 of the pdf)
  12. (see pages 79 and 80 of pdf)
  17. (see page 105 of pdf)